THE CONSTITUTIONAL MANDATE

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, as in past constitutions, vested the power of government on the legislative, executive, and the judiciary.

The Legislative Power is vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and referendum.

The Executive Power is vested in the President of the Philippines, and;

The Judicial Power is vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law.

The Constitution provides that the House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than two hundred and fifty (250) members, unless otherwise fixed by law, who shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants, and on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio, and those who, as provided by law, shall be elected through a party-list system of registered national, regional, and sectoral parties or organizations. The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per cent (20%) of the total number of representatives including those under the party list.

A Member of the House of Representatives should be a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five (25) years of age, able to read and write, and, except the party list representatives, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately proceeding the day of the election.

The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of three years, and shall serve for no more than three consecutive terms.